The welfare state is crisis-proof, even more confirmed by COVID19. We fortunately learnt the lesson of the austerity policies after the debt crisis of 2011-2012. However, there has been a slowdown in economic governance but especially in social convergence. Despite rich economies spend more for social protection, that was not enough at all and we realised that we still underdeveloped some of the health care or long-term systems. This gap, following the word of Mr. Pacolet, needs to be filled in by social security to avoid privatization and its consequences but also taking into account other present challenges as war, inflation, energy shortages or climate change, that underline our fragility. 



(1951) is Emeritus Professor with formal duties in the ‘Social and economic policy & social inclusion’ unit of HIVA. He is associate professor of the Catholic University of Leuven and from 1983 until September 2017 he was head of the ‘Social and economic policy & social inclusion’ unit, and research manager for the research team ‘Economy and the welfare state’.

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